Mixed 1-to-1 with distilled water yields 40 liters of fluid. The pre-treatment fluid can be applied by rolling, airless sprayer, or pre-treatment machine. Pre-treatment application to a garment is required prior to use of UltraChrome DG White Ink. Epson Pre-Treatment Fluid is ECO-PASSPORT Certified by OEKO-TEX. This is an international safety standard in the textile industry. It certifies Epson Pre-treatment fluid is safe for adults and children, including babies.